Congress Shall Make no Law Respecting an Establishment of Commerce

Modern society consists of three major components: culture, government, and the economy. The founders of the United States specified the relationship between culture and government in the first amendment, which forbids the establishment of religion, but they did not make a similar declaration with respect to the relationship between government and the economy. In their day, the economy did not exist in separate concentrations of power since it was mostly based on family-run businesses and farms.

However, human freedom requires freedom in the economic sphere as well as the religious and political spheres. Following industrialization in the nineteenth century, corporations were given more power by the courts, amassed greater capital, and eventually used that power to displace the political and economic power of ordinary citizens. A socialist backlash attempted to use the force of government to plan industrial output. In Europe, these two trends led to different forms of totalitarianism. On the right we had National Socialism and Fascism and on the left we had Communism.

Today the lack of clear relationship between political and economic power is one of the most serious problems facing the United States. Economic planning by the government and businesses procuring government favors lead to the establishment of commerce and the prevention of free exercise in the market. Massive government inefficiency, loss of economic competitiveness, overpriced oil and healthcare, and loss of personal freedom are all unwanted results. An amendment to the U.S. Constitution relating to the economy that is similar to the establishment clause related to religion could be a first step in solving this problem.
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What Constitutes acceptable use of Force?

Introduction to IJWP, March 2008

“What Constitutes the Legitimate Use of Force?” is a thorny and much debated question in modern political theory and just war doctrine. Under what conditions is the use of force moral? When is it immoral? How much force is enough? What is excessive use of force? Do some types of governments, by virtue of their structure, have a greater right to use force than others? How much force against individuals should be allowed to secure some greater good?  The articles in this issue each address this issue of the legitimate use of force, directly or indirectly, from a variety of perspectives.
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A Post-Westphalian world and the quest for Self-Determination

IJWP 4-07 CoverIntroduction to IJWP, December 2007 Issue

Many of the key issues of our turbulent age are presented in this issue of IJWP. It contains hints of the outline of how a post-Westphalian, post-bipolar world is shaping up. We have not come close to creating a world of peace, but we are learning a few things that I hope we can collectively remember to come closer to the end of a history of abuse of power.
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World Association of NGOs 2007 Conference in Toronto

Opening Dinner Event

On Thursday, November 8, 2007, representatives of NGOs from around the world gathered in Toronto, Canada for the annual meeting of the World Association of NGOs (WANGO) on the theme “Ethics and Global Peace: NGO Perspectives.” There were many Canadians in attendance. As we learned later, NGOs account for 7.3% of the GDP of Canada, the highest recorded for any country, making it an excellent place to hold a WANGO conference. Continue reading

Why Plans for a Two-State Solution in the Middle East Have Failed

PWPA President Morton A. Kaplan

From the early United Nations plans for a two-state solution in the Middle East to the present, plans for a two-state solution have come up against immovable obstacles. The original UN plan for Israel would have led to a state that was indefensible in a hostile environment. The plan for a Palestinian state failed to comprehend that the Palestinians, unlike the Jews, had not created an apparatus for self-government. The architects of the plan also failed to allow for the Arab nationalism and anti-colonialism that would impel the Arab states to war and long-term hostility. Continue reading

Further Back to the Future? A Reply to Foreign Minister Lavrov

Russia’s Foreign Minister Lavrov created quite a stir when he withdrew his article “Containing Russia: Back to the Future?” from publication in Foreign Affairs and submitted its uncensored version to Russia in Global Affairs. In that article he lamented what looks to be a return of a Cold War mentality in some U.S. foreign policy circles. He argues that we should bring back a pre-World War I system of states based on the Westphalian model.

In his essay in International Journal on World Peace, (September, 2007) Morton A. Kaplan argues that this discussion of the international system is an important one. He too laments any belligerent Cold War attitudes but argues that the solution will not be in going further back in history to go forward. Kaplan argues that the world has changed much and a Westphalian system is no longer possible or desirable. The United Nations, which presupposes such a system of sovereign states, must also be reformed to adjust to numerous levels of global interaction that place limits on state sovereignty.

Happy 300th Birthday Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706—April 17, 1790) was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to a tallow-maker. He became a newspaper editor, printer, merchant, and philanthropist in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was one of the most prominent of Founders and early political figures and statesmen of the United States. As a “self-made man” noted for his curiosity, ingenuity, generosity, and diversity of interests, he became an inspiration and model for many early Americans. Continue reading

Some Memories of Alex Shtromas

Professor Alexander Shtromas

December 18, 2002 (PWPA Foundation Day)((PWPA-International was Founded, Seoul, Korea, Dec. 18, 1983))

December 18 is the anniversary of the founding of PWPA International. One stalwart member of PWPA involved in its founding was Alexander Shtromas. Professor Shtromas passed away in June 1999. This memory was written in his honor on PWPA Foundation Day 2002. Continue reading

International Conferences on World Peace-Asia

The International Conference on World Peace (ICWP) began as the fruit of the first professor exchanges between Korea and Japan. Academics without the vested interests of political and religious leaders were able to foster greater understanding and cooperation than had been possible in the cultural and political spheres. They are organized by the Asian chapters of PWPA.

  • 1st ICWP Apr. 24-27, 1974 World Peace and Asia, Seoul, Korea
  • 2nd ICWP July 22-27, 1974 Asian Security and the Free World, Taipei, China
  • 3rd ICWP Dec. 19-24, 1974 Asia in Crisis: Quest for New Hope, Tokyo, Japan
  • 4th ICWP Sept. 3-8, 1975 Future Aspects of Asia and the Changing World Seoul, Korea
  • 5th ICWP Dec. 14-16, 1975 Strategy for Peace, Tokyo, Japan
  • 6th ICWP Sept. 24-28, 1976 National Culture and World Peace, Seoul, Korea
  • 7th ICWP Feb. 3, 1977 Northeast Asian Security, Taipei, China
  • 8th ICWP July 23-29, 1978 The Pacific Era: Issues for the 80s and Beyond Tokyo, Japan
  • 9th ICWP July 16-20, 1979 Korea: A Model Semi-Developed Country, Seoul, Korea
  • 10th ICWP Aug 25-Sept 1, 1980 World Issues for the 80’s Taipei, China
  • 11th ICWP July 10-14, 1981 Modernization: Asian Perspectives, Tokyo, Japan
  • 12th ICWP July 15-18, 1982 Peace in the 80’s Vision for Asian Seoul, Korea
  • 13th ICWP Aug 28-Sept 3, 1983 International Cooperation in East Asia, Taipei, China
  • 14th ICWP Aug. 1-4, 1984 The Role of East Asia in World Peace, Baguio,Philippines
  • 15th ICWP July 15-16, 1985 Asia-Pacific in the 21st Century, Tokyo, Japan
  • 16th ICWP July 15-18, 1986 The New Discovery of Asia, Seoul, Korea
  • 17th ICWP Aug. 30-Sept 3, 1987 Asia: Continuity and Change, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 18th ICWP July 17-20, 1988 Towards an Asian Community in the Global Era, Manila, Philippines
  • 19th ICWP July 24-25, 1989 The Obstacles and Scenarios in Forming an Asian Community in the Pacific Era
  • 20th ICWP Aug. 22-25, 1990 Shaping a New World Order with Perspectives on Changes in Asia
  • 21st ICWP Nov. 21-24, 1991 The Roles of Asian-Pacific Intellectuals in the Changing World, Taiwan
  • 22nd ICWP Dec. 1-5, 1993 Unity for Asian Progress in the 21st Century, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 23rd ICWP Nov. 13-15, 1994 The Era of East Asia and a Vision for Creating a New Civilization, Tokyo, Japan
  • 24th ICWP Nov. 21-25, 1996 The Coming of a New Century: Interface Between the 20th and 21st Century, Beijing, China
  • 25th ICWP Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1998 2lst-Century Education in the Context of Globalization, Taipei, Taiwan