Opening Convocation
    The Opening Convocation of the Fourth International Congress of Professors
    World Peace Academy (From Left to Right) The Honorable Robert H. Bork, J.M.
    Olin Scholar in Legal Studies, American Enterprise Institute; Gordon L.
    Anderson, Secretary-General, PWPA-International; Edward Shils, Professor of
    Social Thought, Cambridge University and University of Chicago; Neil A.
    Salonen, Vice Chairman, PWPA; Chung Hwan Kwak, Chairman, PWPA; Morton A.
    Kaplan, President PWPA-International; Roger Michener, Professor of Law,
    Princeton University; and J.C.H. Davies, President of PWPA-UK.
 C.H. Kwak
    Reverend Chung Hwan Kwak, Chairman, International Cultural Foundation.
M. A. Kaplan
    Morton A. Kaplan, President, PWPA-International.
R. Michener
    Roger Michener, Professor of Law, Princeton University, Organizing Chairman
    for the Fourth Congress.
 E. Shils
    Edward Shils, Professor of Social Thought, the University of Chicago and
    Princeton University. Senior Consultant for the Fourth Congress.
 opening address
    Reverend Kwak delivered his opening address to over 300 participants in the
    4th International Congress of PWPA.
 Bork and Olin
    The Honorable Robert H. Bork, John M. Olin Scholar in Legal Studies,
    American Enterprise Institute
    [photo A8]
    Professor Shils delivering his closing Plenary address at the Fourth
    International Congress of PWPA on "The Present State and Future Prospects
    of Liberal Democracy."
 panel 1
    PANEL I - Freedom and Government:  Politics
         Within the liberal democratic societies, government by the people and
    for the people is constrained by the requirement that the rights and
    freedoms of individuals shall be respected. Tensions have arisen in such
    societies today and may be exacerbated tomorrow because of the greatly
    enhanced power of the modern state which some see as a necessary response
    to a variety of crises and legitimate demands and others as the product of
    the excessive material and ideological promises made by politicians to those
    whose support they seek. A further political issue that has arisen concerns
    the many independent social institutions that stand between the state and
    the individual which may become attenuated and lose their autonomy as state
    power increases and demands for individual "liberation" grow. Liberal
    democratic societies are dynamic and  creative entities characterized by
    spontaneous change and in consequence the problems their citizens face as
    well as the opportunities they enjoy also change so that the central
    principles of ordered liberty will always have to be applied in new and
    unpredictable contexts. - J.C.H. Davies, University of Reading.
 panel 2
    PANEL II - The Rule of Law and the Development of Legal Institutions
         Laypeople seem to understand what they mean by the rule of law, but
    lawyers and philosophers are engaged in making some sense of this concept
    that democratic liberals take for granted. This panel will pursue this
    inquiry into the foundations of the rule of law, with papers on the
    philosophical links between the concept and both English and German
    liberalism. The meaning of the rule of law is pursued in the presentations
    on the relationship of this ideal to formalism, on the one hand, and
    emotions, on the other. Underlying these themes is the recurrent question
    whether the rule of law should be understood in its positivistic or
    naturalistic variation - George P. Fletcher
 panel 3
    PANEL III - Culture and the Cultural Foundations of Democracy
         It is the purpose of this panel to explore both the role of high
    culture in liberal democratic society and the erosion which that role has
    lately suffered under the impact of political and social developments that
    look upon the traditions of high culture as an "elitist" and thus oppressive
    residue of an earlier and outmoded stage of our civilization. What the
    concept of "high culture" encompasses in this discussion are the fine arts
    and the humanities as traditionally understood in the West.
        Attention will be paid to the way this concept of culture has been
    altered by the political mission of the social sciences, and the effect of
    this altered meaning on education, the arts, and indeed all of intellectual
    life. Attention will also be paid to the adversarial role of writers and
    intellectuals in liberal democratic society.
         Finally, the panel will assess the impact of recent developments on the
    institutions of high culture--art museums, the theater, opera houses, and
    the performance of classical music, book publishing, etc.--which have
    traditonally served to preserve and transmit the central achievements of our
    civilization but which now find themselves pressed to perform quite
    different functions. - Hilton Kramer, The New Criterion
 panel 5
    PANEL V - World Order and Liberal Democracy
         The purpose of this panel is to explore the possibility
    of creating a liberal democratic world order. First, the
    suitability of liberal democratic principles to provide the
    foundation for the unification of different extant
    civilizations and cultures into a universal world order will
    be examined. Then the current trends in international politics
    will be analyzed with the view to evaluate the practical
    prospects for establishing a liberal democratic world order.
    The panel will also focus on the problem of the applicability
    of liberal democratic principles to management of supra-
    national and global affairs and, specifically, on the
    compatibility of an institutionalized world order with the
    right of nations to self-determination and sovereignty. The
    panel will conclude with the debate on the plan for advancing
    West European unity in 1992 and the global implications of this
    plan. - Alexander Shtromas, Hillsdale College
 panel 6
    PANEL VI - Freedom and Government II:  Economics
         This panel considers the different aspects of the relation
    between freedom, coercion and the rights of individuals. The
    appeal of freedom arises both from the values it creates or
    preserves for the individual and the benefits it may produce
    for society. The conflicts between freedom and other values may
    arise when governments promise to provide "justice." Cross
    cultural comparisons of social arrangements with differing
    degrees of freedom provide evidence on the consequences of
    restricting freedom.
         A common definition of freedom is the absence of coercion.
    This definition may mix freedom and power, and it does not
    consider sufficiently the relation between rights and freedom.
    Maintenance of freedom requires care about the assignment of rights. Some rights are exclusive; others are not. The
    definition of freedom that is discussed distinguishes between
    these different types of rights and the ways in which they may
    be assigned.
         Few societies achieve, or seek to achieve, strict limits
    on coercion. The panel will consider the appeal of liberal
    democratic government and the reasons that such governments
    are now rare or non-existent. - Alan H. Meltzer, Carnegie-
    Mellon University and American Enterprise Institute
 panel 7
    PANEL VII - Legislatures, Machinery of Legislation,
    Organization of the State
         This panel will discuss the evolution of the liberal state
    as a specific form of government. It will show how the type of
    representative government which we now see as the model of the
    liberal state was the product of a particular culture and
    historical period. One focus of the panel will be on the extent
    to which the model of the liberal state has had to be modified
    and adapted to cope with different historical circumstances and
    with different cultural expectations from those in which it
         The panel will also discuss the challenges to the liberal
    democratic state in the twentieth century, especially the
    challenge inherent in the growth of state functions and the
    growing interdependence of nations. In the context of the
    modern state, can the legislative process be anything other
    than a ritual which leaves the real decision-making power and
    influence to other actors at the national and supra-national
    level--officials, executive agencies and ministers, and
    pressure groups? This theme will be considered with particular
    reference to the style of democracy of the European Community.
         The growth of bureaucracy and its development within
    modern society will be considered from a number of angles. Have
    the institutions proved adequate? Is it possible to control
    bureaucracy? Does the strengthening of liberal democracy
    require a strengthening of the market and governmental
         Such questions will, we hope, illuminate the relationship
    between the evolution of governmental processes and the
    survival of liberal democracy between the machinery of a
    particular state or cluster of states and the value of the
    political system. - Gillian Peele, University of Oxford
 panel 8
    PANEL VIII - Public Opinion:  Enlightenment and Formation
         This panel deals with the effects of the mass media. Since
    the thirties up to the present, this has been the most
    controversial field of communications research. In the days of Aristotle it was already known that appearance is more important
    than the actual nature of things. And how something appears,
    is largely a question of how it is presented in the mass media.
    This is the central issue when debating the effects of the mass
         Over the past five decades communications research has
    been revolutionized. Initially concerned with the effects
    individual articles, films, or radio broadcasts may have on the
    public communications research now extends to the study of the
    complete media system, i.e., the interrelated effects of
    television, radio and the print media on public opinion. The
    knowledge as to what is really meant by public opinion and its
    role in society had been completely buried. It first had to be
    recovered and defined before the effects of the mass media
    could be understood and empirically investigated.
         All the scientists of this panel have made pioneering
    contributions to this development of communications research
    over the past decades. - Elisabeth Nouelle-Neumann, Institut
    fur Demoskopie
 panel 9
    PANEL IX - Science, Technology, and Innovation
         Science and modern liberal democracy arose simultaneously.
    Is this coincidence, or is the underlying ethic postulated by
    John Locke necessary for the flourishing of both science and
    liberal democracy? The great post World War II successes of
    science and technology have been confined predominantly to the
    liberal democracies. Yet the very openness of the democracies
    has, in recent years, begun to threaten scientific inquiry
    (animal rights, for example), and has hampered the use of
    technologies (pesticides, nuclear power) that are regarded by
    certain groups as environmentally threatening. Thus we ask, can
    hazardous technologies survive in open democracies? The
    converse question, can open democracies retain their stability
    in an age of instant worldwide communication and sophisticated
    terrorist gadgetry, is also timely, especially as we witness
    instabilities in Eastern Europe in this period of transition
    to democracy. -  Alvin M. Weinberg, Oak Ridge Associated
 panel 10
    PANEL X - Nationality, Patriotism, & Nationalism
         Since the French Revolution, the nation-state has come to
    be considered the normal form of political organization of
    liberal democratic societies, and many argue that there will
    be no durability of political systems if they lack a specific
    naional identity. However, we observe a progressive erosion of
    the original liberal connotations associated with the notions
    of nation and nationality, ultra-nationalism, fascism, and the rise of high imperialism since the 1880's. In addition, the
    nation-state turned against national minorities within its own
         By 1945 it seemed evident to many that the ideas of nation
    and nationality had come to the end of their usefulness.
    However, the expectation that new transnational forms of
    political organization were about to take over proved
    premature. Right now everywhere, even in the USSR, old
    nationality conflicts may well endanger the stability of the
    present world order and world peace. The new non-Western
    nations were not spared any of the distortions of the idea of
    nationality which were already observed in 19th century Europe.
         Presently, in the West the nationality problem is posed
    in terms of the minority status of groups of immigrants and
    "guestworkers" and their offspring. Their numbers now threaten
    the dominant national culture and rightist movements surface
    making these groups their target. This challenge strikes at the
    heart of the liberal nature of Western democracies. - Roger
    Michener, Princeton University
 panel 11
    PANEL XI - Religion & Liberal Society
         What should be the legitimate role of religious groups in
    a free society? To what extent do they, as the moral conscience
    of a society, have an obligation to speak out on the crucial
    issues affecting government and officials elected to govern?
    Should church and state remain separated or are new kinds of
    coalitions and allegiances inevitable? Liberal democracy
    challgnes all religions to live with one another in a
    relationship of parity. Religion challenges democracy to
    respect puralism and to take into account transcendent human
    values. This panel will address these questions from the
    perpective of different religious faiths and different national
    experiences, paying particular attention to the shifting
    balance between those who would seek to transform secularity
    into secularism or change the religious role into religiously
    dominated discourse. - The Reverend Thomas M. Gannon, S. J.,
    Loyola University of Chicago
 panel 12
    PANEL XII - Civility and Citizenship
         The topic is developed in six papers. The first by Edward
    Shils distinguishes the "civil person" and the "civil society"
    from the "citizen" and the "state" and points to conditions of
    modern life that threaten to erode civility and endanger
    liberal democracy. The second paper by Katherine Auspitz tells
    how certain British and continental writers in the eighteenth
    and nineteenth centuries sought to encourage the motivations
    they deemed essential to a free society. The third paper by
    Charles Kesler describes the American founders' conception of the public interest. The fourth paper by Robert Goldwin, a
    further examination of the American experience, maintains that
    the tension between rights and citizenship render liberal
    democracy impossible except as civility intervenes. The fifth
    paper by James Q. WIlson asks how we can explain the fact that
    nowadays economic progress is accompanied by increased
    criminality; after a critical survey of the literature on crime
    he suggested that ultural changes reflect the logical
    consequences of the Enlightenment. The sixth and final paper
    by Clifford Orwin views the subject matter in the contrasting
    lights of ancient and modern philosophy. - Edward C.Banfield,
    Harvard University
 panel 13
    PANEL XIII - Morals
         The kinds of questions to be considered are these: to what
    extent do the institutions of a liberal society rest on moral
    values, and to what extent are those values sustained or
    corroded by the liberal democratic way of life? Is it possible
    to distinguish liberty from license? Can there be a liberal
    sexual morality? To what extent is the liberal-democratic order
    compatible with the idea of a 'moral community'? What place is
    there for moral education in a liberal democratic society? And
    one could reflect here on the new 'ideologies' of education of
    the kind studied by Isabelle Stal and Francoise Thom in Schools
    for Barbarians. - Roger Scruton, University of London
 panel 14
    PANEL XIV - Work, Employment, and Class
         Few aspects of liberal democratic society are so crucial
    to its future prospects as the organisation of work, including
    in particular the nature of recruitment to work roles and their
    rewards. The context of the panel's discussions is provided by
    the profound failure of marxist and related class theories to
    explicate the relations between work and society. - David
    Marsland, West London Institute
 panel 15
    PANEL XIV - The Expansion and Impact of the Western Liberal
    Tradition on Other Civilizations
         Over the past decade the demand for democracy has posed
    a challenge to a number of illiberal regimes. In Eastern Europe
    and the Soviet Union glasnost and perestroika are powerful
    symbols of hope if not as yet of achievement. There is
    evidence, too, of more liberal policies in several Third World
    states although problems of ethnic unrest, military ambition,
    failing economies, and the intensity of religious fervour are
    powerful obstacles to the success of democratic beliefs.
         The question is not only whether people want democracy
    but whether they can sustain the condition in which political
    freedom and civil liberties can be established. The panel also
    examines the question whether the movement of politics towards
    a greater degree of freedom should be measured in relation to
    local constraints and local achievements rather than in
    absolute terms.
         The theme is large, the range of examples very wide, from
    Japan to India to the Soviet Union and the partial democracies
    of (some) Asian, African and Latin American countries. The
    unifying thread of enquiry is that of the title, namely, the
    extent to which the non-western world has been influenced by
    the liberal democratic values of the West. - Dennis Austin,
    University of Manchester
 G. Anderson
    Dr. Gordon Anderson, Secretary-General of PWPA International moderated the
    PWPA-Presidents Plenary.
 Hang Nyong Lee
    Dr. Hang Nyong Lee, President of PWPA-Korea, spoke about PWPA activities in
    Korea and Asia.
 Guido Pincheira
    Professor Guido Pincheira, University of Chile and President of PWPA-Child,
    describes the activities of PWPA in Latin America.
 Edward Njock
    Professor G. Edward Njock, University of Yaounde, Cameroon and Organizing
    Chairman of the 2nd Pan-African Congress of PWPA, described the development
    of PWPA in Africa.
 C.H. Kwak
    Reverend Chung Hwan Kwak unveiling Reverend Moon's plan for the "New World
    Festival" to PWPA Presidents.
    New World Festival Brochure.
    [photo C7]
    Latin American President's Meeting.
reduce tension
    PWPA professors from the Middle East discuss plans to reduce tension in the
 European Presidents
    European Presidents meeting. New representatives from Poland, Hungary, and
    Bulgaria were present.
 Professor Ogutu
    Professor Ogutu, President of PWPA-Kenya making a point at the African
    Presidents panel.
 leaders from south Asia
    PWPA Leaders from South Asia posed for a photo by a PWPA display.
    Statement on Nationalism (Original with Today's World)
    ?    [photo D1]
    Reverend Kwak welcomes W.T. Roy, President of PWPA-New Zealand.
 A. Shtromas
    Alexander Shtromas, Organizing Chairman for the 2nd Congress, welcomes Sir
    Alfred Shuman, Co-Founder of the Centre for Policy Studies, U.K.
 ICF  associates
    Judge Bork meets with long time ICF associates Kenneth Mellanby and Alvin
 advisory board
    A meeting of the advisory board of the International Journal on World Peace.
 Fred Singer
    Professor Fred Singer makes a point in the session on Inventiveness,
    Discovery, and Technology.
 W. Ruegg
    Walter Ruegg's Panel on Universities and Learning was well attended.
 Salonen's family
    Mr. Salonen introduces his family to Reverend Kwak.
    Professors Kaplan and Michener conferring before the conference began.
 Kittrie and G. Anderson
    Professor Kittrie, President of PWPA in discussion with Gordon Anderson,
    Secretary-General, and his wife Mary Jane.
 intrduces the panel
    J.C.H. Davies, Professor of Sociology, University of Reading, U.K., and
    President of PWPA-UK, introduces the panel on Freedom and Government which
    he chaired.
 perform skits
    Shakespearian actors performed skits at the final banquet.
 banquet music
    The Final Banquet ended with pleasant music from a local wind quintet.